Self-management interventions for adults with chronic kidney disease: a scoping review

2018-07-26T16:45:19+00:00

Donald M, Kahlon BK, Beanlands H, et al. BMJ Open 2018;8:e019814. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019814

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Objective

To systematically identify and describe self-management interventions for adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Setting

Community-based.

Participants

Adults with CKD stages 1–5 (not requiring kidney replacement therapy).

Interventions

Self-management strategies for adults with CKD.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Using a scoping review, electronic databases and grey literature were searched in October 2016 to identify self-management interventions for adults with CKD stages 1–5 (not requiring kidney replacement therapy). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, qualitative and mixed method studies were included and study selection and data extraction were independently performed by two reviewers. Outcomes included behaviours, cognitions, physiological measures, symptoms, health status and healthcare.

Results

Fifty studies (19 RCTs, 7 quasi-experimental, 5 observational, 13 pre-post intervention, 1 mixed method and 5 qualitative) reporting 45 interventions were included. The most common intervention topic was diet/nutrition and interventions were regularly delivered face to face. Interventions were administered by a variety of providers, with nursing professionals the most common health professional group. Cognitions (ie, changes in general CKD knowledge, perceived self-management and motivation) were the most frequently reported outcome domain that showed improvement. Less than 1% of the interventions were co-developed with patients and 20% were based on a theory or framework.

Conclusions

There was a wide range of self-management interventions with considerable variability in outcomes for adults with CKD. Major gaps in the literature include lack of patient engagement in the design of the interventions, with the majority of interventions not applying a behavioural change theory to inform their development. This work highlights the need to involve patients to co-developed and evaluate a self-management intervention based on sound theories and clinical evidence.